The following terms have been largely selected from the glossary of the Gender Statistics Website of the United Nations Economic Commission (UNECE). See UNECE gender statistics glossary.


Refers to the socially constructed relationship between women and men and the attributes, behavior and activities each is expected to adhere to. Gender differences are determined and reinforced by cultural, historical, ethnic, religious and economic factors.
Gender is often wrongly conflated with ‘sex', which refers to the biological differences between women and men.
See sex.

Gender analysis
Tool used to identify and understand social relations of production. Gender analysis focuses on differences in the status and activities of women and men, including differences in access to and control over power and resources.

Gender and development
Adopted in the 1980's, 'gender and development' is an analytical and programmatic approach that aims to address the underlying causes of gender disparities and achieve women's empowerment by improving their status relative to men.
The 'gender and development approach' differs significantly from the ‘women in development' approach of the 1970's, which attempted to address women's needs in isolation, rather than in relation, to men.
See women in development.
Gender disaggregated data
Data collected on women and men separately in relation to all aspects of their functioning – ethnicity, class, caste, age, location.

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Measures gender inequality in economic and political spheres of activity.
  * Economic participation and decision-making are measured by the percentage of female administrators and managers, and professional and technical workers.
  * Political participation and decision-making are measured by the percentage of seats in parliament held by women.
  * Power over economic resources is measured by women's GDP per capita (PPP US$).
Gender equality
Refers to norms, values, attitudes and perceptions required to attain equal status between women and men without neutralizing the biological differences between them.

Gender equity
Fairness in women and men's access to socio-economic resources.
A condition in which women and men participate as equals and have equal access to socio-economic resources.

Gender indicators
Standards used to measure changes in the status and roles of women and men, particularly progress towards gender equality and gender equity.  Gender indicators are developed on the basis of gender issues. Indicators are expressed as numbers, percentages, rates or ratios and can be a single figure or distribution.

Gender issue
Refers to any aspect of women and men's lives and gender relations, including their access to, and control over, resources and opportunities.

Gender mainstreaming
An institutional policy and programme strategy that seeks to integrate women's concerns into all sectors of activity. Gender mainstreaming contrasts to ‘women-specific' approaches that advocate separate activities for women.
See also gender planning.

Gender planning
A planning approach based on gender analysis and an awareness that seeks to include women, on an equal basis with men, as participants and beneficiaries. Gender planning also attempts to redress gender disparities created or intensified by socio-cultural factors.
See also gender mainstreaming.

Gender-related development index (GDI)
Includes the same basic data as the human development index, but focuses on the differences between women and men in terms of life expectancy, literacy, primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment as well as earned income.

Gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices
Principal measure of total economic activity occurring within a country's geographical boundary.

Gross enrolment ratio
Total enrolment for this educational level (regardless of age) divided by the population of the age group that should be enrolled at this level at the beginning of the academic/school year according to national regulations.
See also net enrolment ratio.




















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